Ce travail a lieu dans le cadre d’un travail en cours plus conséquent intitulé ‘Ruskin, Turner, Ruskin’’s discovery of climate change, degrowth and the Guild of St George’
Turner’s poetry and other texts, including the complete titles he gives to his paintings, are often important for understanding fully the meanings of the latter
Yet they are omitted from most of the captions to his paintings on the Tate website.
From 1811 onwards, Turner often accompanies his pictures with poetry said to come from an MS entities Fallacies of Hope. These are especially important, but they are not the only ones
Let us begin with the first two major Carthage pictures, of 1815 and 1817.
Dido building Carthage, exh. 1815, BJ 131, National Gallery, London. This is the title to be found on the National gallery website
We will restore Turner’s full title : Dido building Carthage, or the Rise of the Carthaginian Empire, as to found in the RA catalogue of 1815
This shows we are in the domain on Empire building, not simply city building
Though it may be argued that when Turner donated this picture to the NG with…he wanted to emphasize here the painterly Claudian aspect of the work rather than the historical aspect.
Nevertheless he did not split the original title of the picture
and such is the complete title
The second Carthage picture is
BJ THE DECLINE OF THE CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE EMPIRE, Rome being determined on the overthrow of her hated rival demanded from her such terms as might either force her into war or ruin her by compliance : the enervated Carthagians, in their anxiety for peace, consented to give up even their arms and their children, exh. 1817
(Did they not fight Rome to the bitter end ? )
. . . At Hope’s delusive smile, The chieftain’s safety and the mother’s pride, Were to the insidious conqu’or’s grasp resign’d; While o’er the western wave th’ensanguin’d sun In gathering haze a stormy signal spread, And set portentous.
Though this poem is not said by Turner to be from the Fallacies of Hope ms, the conception of these pictures is in the same spirit, it seem to us.
The Tate website, which omitted the greater part of Turner’s title, and Turner’s poetry from the RA catalogue, nevertheless is correct here for once to some extent.
and seems to recognizes and acknowledges that there is a pointed? moral to this picture
This is we find the on the Tate website : “Turner saw the rise and fall of once-great empires as a historical inevitability, confirmed by the fall of Napoleon, but threatening to overtake the victorious British.”
This is all the more to the merit of the Tate that they may explicit what is only implicit in Turner
As Butlin and Joel mention, John Gage had allready stressed this fact in an article in 1974 had pointed out that such comparisons of the rise and fall of empires and their application to the contemporary situation were a commonplace in the 18th and 19th as in Goldsmith’s ….and Gibbon’s …. (where in each ? )
Comme il a été explique plus haut : ce travail a lieu dans le cadre d’un travail en cours plus conséquent intitulé ‘Ruskin, Turner, Ruskin’’s discovery of climate change, degrowth and the Guild of St George’
Dans cette perspective il convient d’ajouter ici que cette idée d’empire doit être pris dans un sens large. Elle émigre à l’ouest aux Etats-Unis, qui hérite des empires autant français que britannique,, et peut même être étendu à l’humanité entière, dans son rapport avec la nature, bien que certains peuvent être considérés comme plus responsables que d’autres, (voir photo panneau bld St Germain; ministère de …
The next picture we will comment is :
Sur le site de la Tate gallery, le poème de Turner est supprimé et il y a simplement le commentaire suivant :
« For Turner, the figure of Hannibal – here leading his armies to attack Italy – had powerful associations with Napoleon. These connections had been explicitly drawn in an official portrait of Napoleon about to lead his own armies across the St Bernard Pass. Snow Storm, however, does not celebrate the power of the individual, but expresses man’s vulnerability in the face of nature’s overwhelming force. Hannibal himself is not pictured, and attention is focused upon victims of the conflict, the struggling soldiers. »
Le poème de Turner, described for the first time as coming from his ‘MS. P(oem?) Fallacies of Hope’, est le suivant :
“Craft, treachery and fraud – Salassian force, Hung on the fainting rear ! Then Plunder seized The victor and the captive,- Sagentum’s spoil Alike became their prey; still the chief advanced Look’d on the sun with hope; – low, broad, and wan; While the fierce archer of the downward year Stains Italy’s blanched barrier with storms In vain each pass, ensanguin’d deep with dead, Or rocky fragments, wide destruction rolled, Still on Campania’s fertile plains — he thought, But the loud breeze sob’d, “Capua’s joys beware ! ”
The display caption at Tate Britain and its website leave out these verses
According to the Tate, the picture is about Snow Storm, however, does not celebrate the power of the individual, but « expresses man’s vulnerability in the face of nature’s overwhelming force. »
Il est clair par ce poème et le contexte historique que le thème principal du tableau n’est pas la vulnérabilité de l’homme face a la Nature. Hannibal a franchi avec succès les Alpes, mais son entreprise de l’invasion de l’Italie et la conquête de Rome, le grand rival de Carthage, a été compromis et a finalement échoué, en partie, en tout état de cause, aux excès commis par son armée à Capoue, d’où son ramollissement, et son échec final.
Bel exemple des Illusions de l’Espoir
Voyons maintenant :
343 The Prince of Orange, William III, Embarked from Holland, and Landed at Torbay, November 4th, 1688, after a Stormy Passage
This picture was exhibited in 1832 with a reference to ‘-” History of England” ‘ and the text ‘The yacht in which his majesty sailed was after many changes and services, finally wrecked on the Hambourg sands, while employed in the Hull trade’
According to like Lindsay, there is a reference to political events in England at the time : 1832 was a year of radical agitation, insurrection ‘(at Bristol) and successful parliamentary reform
Lindsay sees here a Thomsonian inspiration. Part IV of Liberty ends with a long apostrophe to William as the man who saved England from bigotry and oppression. Thomson stresses the storm as symbolically representing the counter-revolution. Liberty speaks :
« Immortal Nassau came. I hushed the deep By demons roused, and bade the listed winds, Still shifting as behoved, with various breath Waft the deliverer to the longing shore ». Liberty,
In rhe context of the struggle for the Reform Bill, Tuner’s picture of William , in the face of the opposition of the elements to bring about the Glorious Revolution can only have one meaning.
Lindsay suggest that there is an allegorical intent in the note added : ‘Turner reminds of the twist that distorts men’s aims and hopes ; the triumphant ship of liberty is wrecked in the end as the mere instrument of trade’, Lindsay, p. 62
This is the display cation on the Tate website :
« This representation of an historical event contains a number of errors. William’s fleet had indeed been beaten back to base in October 1688 but on 1 November sailed in perfect weather, landing on 5 November. Like various earlier Dutch-inspired compositions, this, too, carries a political message connected with Anglo-Dutch relations. Here, Turner criticises again British non-intervention in the Belgian revolt, which was to lead to the termination in 1839 of the United Netherlands. In the Academy catalogue Turner added a curious note about the Prince having sailed his yacht, not a frigate – a confusion with his arrival in a yacht for his wedding to Princess Mary on 4th (!) November 1677. »
The storm is obviously symbolical. Poetic or painterly licence
If the painting was referring to the Anglo Dutch relations and were a criticism against British non intervention there would be no reason for a symbolical storm.
Moreover the Belgian revolt was perfectly legitimate One can hardly see how Turner could be against it, and wish British intervention. (Query the Tate website)
Turners s note is perfectly clear This is a frequent theme in Thomson, and classical thought. There can be too much trade.
(Aside ? : The question today is whether all environmental problems can be solved by the market, (there is money to be made in green business, green energy etc…) or whether there must be a serious change in mentality and difficult political unpopular-with-some decisions.)
Butlin and Joll also make the parallel between the Glorious Revolution and the passing of the Reform Bill
They make no mention of Anglo-Dutch relations or the Belgian revolution
(Check nevertheless Bachrach’s Turner’s Holland )
L’examen de ces quelques exemples que nous avons vu ci-dessus ainsi que de l’ensemble de la poésie de Turner, et tout spécialement des poèmes attribués aux Fallacies of Hope, ms., révèle une façon de penser qu’on pourrait qualifier de pessimisme classique : les entreprises humaines ont tendance à être déviées ou à échouer à cause d’une tendance humaine à l’ubris ou à l’excès
Il est à noter que le grand historien du climat, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, utilise le même terme d’ubris dans le 3ème volume de son Histoire Humaine et Comparée du Climat, t. 3, Le Réchauffement de 1860 à nos jours. Il se demande si cette histoire qu’il pratique, à la fois évènementielle et de longue durée, ‘est à même d’affronter l’ubris de la hyper consommation des carburants fossiles, et, consécutive, la némésis du réchauffement mondial’, p. 21
En rapport avec ce ci revenons pour for a moment to the Snowstorm picture with its poetry from the Fallacies of Hope and its last line « … beware the joys of Capua”
Comme il a été mentionné ce travail a lieu dans le cadre d’un travail plus conséquent relatif à Ruskin et, parmi d’autres choses, sa découvert du changement climatique anthropique, qui a eu lieu vers la fin des années 1860.
Souvenons nous de la dernier ligne du poème (que nous avons examiné ci-dessus) qui accompagnait le tableau de Turner Snowstorm : Hannibal crossing the Alps :
« But the loud breeze sob’d, Capua’s joys beware ! (expliquer Capua ?)
Ceci nous donne l’indice d’un dernier tableau que Turner aurait pu entreprendre si il avait vécu plus longtemps ou plus tard, dans l’esprit de Fallacies of Hope
(pas une bonne reproduction)
Turner did not have the same prevention against steam power that Ruskin had, (see Rain, Steam and Speed, the great Western Railway, BJ 409, above, mettre un lien ici avec Tate Turner collection), nevertheless in view of his Fallacies of Hope point of view, if Ruskin had had occasion to tell him, when he discovered the first signs of climate change in the late 1860’s, that there were going to be serious problems with the Industrial Revolution, he would not have been surprised
Perhaps he might have even thought of a picture to which he could have appended a poem from the Fallacies of Hope ending with a line warning/mettant en garde contre les Joies de la Revolution Industrielle, a picture with an industrial subject, something like The Fighting Téméraire being towed to its last birth to be broken up, with its nasty little tugboat, accompanied with a poem ending with « … beware the joys of the Industrial Revolution. »
The Fighting Téméraire being towed to its last birth to be broken up, National Gallery.
This would expand on the feeling expressed in this picture, where we feel, in the words of the reviewer of the Art union a great a certain nostalgia for « the venerable victor in a hundred fights tugged to his rest by a paltry steam boat upon which he looks down with powerless contempt, (he) the old bulwark of a nation governed and guided by the mean thing that is to take his place.
FOR ENGLISH VERSION
This painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1812 and accompanied in the catalogue of the exhibit by the following verses by Turner, described for the first time as coming from his ‘MS. P(oem?) Fallacies of Hope’.
We suggest BBB stand for a good hour on his knees in the dark on the staircase leading into the so called Clore Gallery and then stands for a good moment in front of The Angel standing in the Sun , (see below) so that the angel can unleaech some of his anger against this bit of /all this (of) balderdash un nonsense, il he cannot find an answer to these criticisms
an exemple of English shop keeping mentality ? in terms of F Nie?
Il ya unje not interssante de Ruskin much to the admiration of the collectors of the subilline leaves of the FH
The Tate Britain website has left out these verses According to the Tate, the picture is about According to Turners’ verse this is not the fundament meaning od the picture in general or philosophical term
Why this abbreviation, or cutting things in half ? to avoid the weighty question?
Here you may judge for yourselves
L’examen de l’ensemble de la poésie de Turner révèle une façon de penser qu’on pourrait qualifier de pessimisme classique : les entreprises humaines ont tendance à être déviées ou à échouer à cause d’une tendance humaine à l’ubris ou à l’excès
(Il est à noter que le grand historien du climat, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, utilise le même terme d’ubris dans le 4ème volume de son Histoire Humaine et Comparée du Climat, t. 3, Le Réchauffement de 1860 à nos jours. Il se demande si cette histoire qu’il pratique, à la fois évènementielle et de longue durée, ‘est à même d’affronter l’ubris de la hyper consommation des carburants fossiles, et, consécutive, la némésis du réchauffement mondial’, p. 21)
, (point de vue vers laquelle avait évolué William Morris)
Leave out 425 too beyond sujet Climate problem
Utterly sily as introdiction to Turner
Of course we feel meaning is important
Sun has you, (hypocrite lecteur) in his aim
Lost about DBB doing repentance standing in dark
or la lot of nonsense
Some silly comments in Browne introductory film to Turner collection website analyses this picture Browne introductory film to Turner collection website
Draws spectator into film …(good )
But the rest of this commentary is inept
This we believe wold be justified bh the following elements
To be completed
Add Il est clair par ce poème
20/ 378 Ancient Rome
, as Linsay ha s aptly put it
The next picture is